— Glyn Moody (@glynmoody) 31 Décembre 2014
… in Europe 🙂
Dans le passionnant Hacking Europe. From Computer Cultures to Demoscenes (Gerard Alberts, Ruth Oldenziel, dir.) qui vient de paraître chez Springer:
Sur l’histoire de l’Internet voir en particulier le papier stimulant “How Amsterdam Invented the Internet: European Networks of Significance, 1980–1995” de Caroline Nevejan et Alexander Badenoch
” In January of 1994, the Internet became available to the general public in the Netherlands via a new dial-in service and virtual access area called De DigitaleStad (Digital City, called DDS). Hailed as a new form of public sphere, DDS visualized the Internet as a form of a virtual city. Rather than trace how DDS gave shape to an online city, however, this chapter explores how an existing and emerging culture of the city gave rise to this new digital sphere. In particular, it highlights how actors from a range of independent media labs and cultural centers helped to invent the participatory city culture that was visualized within DDS. First, it traces the growth of Amsterdam as a central node and gateway of the Internet in Europe in parallel with the rise of independent media and cultural centers in the 1980—a culture related, among other things, to the squatter’s movement and worldwide activist groups fighting social injustice. The chapter then shows how these sectors came together in the late 1980s with the involvement of a third set of actors, the hacking community, to shape what would become Digital City and Amsterdam’s booming digital culture. Through a series of network events that brought these groups together, a digital culture took shape that eventually gave shape to the city’s digital culture”.
Vendredi 28 novembre 2014 (Université libre de Bruxelles): voir le programme
« L’accès aux documents et données de l’enseignement et de la recherche », Journée d’étude, Calenda, Publié le mardi 14 octobre 2014, http://calenda.org/301684
Andrew L. Russell, Open Standards and the Digital Age History, Ideology, and Networks, Cambridge University Press, 2014 .
How did openness become a foundational value for the networks of the twenty-first century? Open Standards and the Digital Age answers this question through an interdisciplinary history of information networks that pays close attention to the politics of standardization. For much of the twentieth century, information networks such as the monopoly Bell System and the American military’s Arpanet were closed systems subject to centralized control. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, engineers in the United States and Europe experimented with design strategies to create new digital networks. In the process, they embraced discourses of “openness” to describe their ideological commitments to entrepreneurship, technological innovation, and participatory democracy. The rhetoric of openness has flourished – for example, in movements for open government, open source software, and open access publishing – but such rhetoric also obscures the ways the Internet and other “open” systems still depend heavily on hierarchical forms of control.