— Internet Archive (@internetarchive) June 18, 2016
« Reviving an old computer is like restoring a classic car: There’s a thrill from bringing the ancient into the modern world. So it was with my first “real” computer, my Macintosh Plus, when I decided to bring it forward three decades and introduce it to the modern Web ». Jeff Keacher nous raconte son expérience, à découvrir sur The Kernel.
This article, focusing on France, explores the notion of a “Web of professionals” and seeks to establish its factual, epistemological, and methodological implications for the history of the World Wide Web in the 1990s. This research reflects on the promises of the New Economy and the roles of the various controversies, cultures, imaginaries, and forms of mediation affecting the business world in its appropriation of the Web. It also aims to reappraise the individual and collective stakeholders whose active part has been somehow underestimated or obscured by the image of the mass Internet user. The professionalization of Web activities, the development of a new generation of entrepreneurs and the conversion of business models to online practices are all significant parts of the emergent Web culture in France, as well as factors contributing to this emergence.
How the Internet Became Commercial:
Innovation, Privatization, and the Birth of a New Network
Princeton University Press, 2015.
In less than a decade, the Internet went from being a series of loosely connected networks used by universities and the military to the powerful commercial engine it is today. This book describes how many of the key innovations that made this possible came from entrepreneurs and iconoclasts who were outside the mainstream—and how the commercialization of the Internet was by no means a foregone conclusion at its outset.
Shane Greenstein traces the evolution of the Internet from government ownership to privatization to the commercial Internet we know today. This is a story of innovation from the edges. Greenstein shows how mainstream service providers that had traditionally been leaders in the old-market economy became threatened by innovations from industry outsiders who saw economic opportunities where others didn’t—and how these mainstream firms had no choice but to innovate themselves. New models were tried: some succeeded, some failed. Commercial markets turned innovations into valuable products and services as the Internet evolved in those markets. New business processes had to be created from scratch as a network originally intended for research and military defense had to deal with network interconnectivity, the needs of commercial users, and a host of challenges with implementing innovative new services.
How the Internet Became Commercial demonstrates how, without any central authority, a unique and vibrant interplay between government and private industry transformed the Internet.
Shane Greenstein is the MBA Class of 1957 Professor of Business Administration and cochair of the Digital Initiative at Harvard Business School, and codirector of the program on the economics of digitization at the National Bureau of Economic Research. His books include Diamonds Are Forever, Computers Are Not and Standards and Public Policy.
Yay! Nicole Starosielski's _Undersea Network_ won this year's best first book award at @ SCMS! Much deserved! pic.twitter.com/zpAmFF2W1U
— Shannon Mattern (@shannonmattern) March 31, 2016
About The Author
— Mitch Fraas (@MitchFraas) March 15, 2016
— Mar Hicks (@histoftech) March 15, 2016
Voir notamment le témoignage de Jake Feinler – recueilli par Marc Weber (p. 52), qui oeuvra au SRI avec Engelbart au développement d’Arpanet et d’Internet (notamment du Whois).
Sur Jake Feinler voir également
ELIZABETH JOCELYN FEINLER: An Interview Conducted by Janet Abbate for the IEEE History Center, 8 July 2002. Interview # 597 for the IEEE History Center, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
In this interview, Feinler describes her work with FORTRAN, her initial interest in Chemistry, and her work at SRI. At SRI, she was involved in several projects including developing an Resource Handbook. She describes in great detail her time and her involvement in these projects at SRI and the transition of the Internet from military use to commercial use. She highlights the ongoing learning process involved in working with computers and programming. Feinler also described her time at NASA at the Ames Research Center after leaving her long career at SRI.
Nous signalons également le billet sur le blog du national Air and Space Museum dédié à Margaret Hamilton.
La première rencontre du Lab InaDLWeb se déroulera le 1er Avril de 15h à 17h30 dans les emprises de l’Ina, sur le site de la BnF François-Mitterrand.
La séance portera sur les problématiques et enjeux liés à la collecte, à l’archivage et au traitement des Tweets produits et diffusés en réaction aux attentats de 2015 à Paris ainsi que sur l’usage de la collection pour et par la recherche .
Déroulé de séance :
15h00-15h45: Présentation des modalités de collecte , indexation, archivage par l’Ina d’un corpus de plus de 20 M de tweets en lien avec les événements
-15h45-16h30 : Présentation des outils existants de traitement et visualisation du corpus
– 16h30 -17 h30 : « Hands on » /Travaux pratiques : Accès à l’interface de consultation des Tweets archivés depuis ordinateurs portables individuels pour prise en main et analyse
-17h30-18h00 : discussions, échanges, expression des besoins
Découvrir ou redécouvrir l’article
Davison P., Because of the Pixels: On the History, Form and Influence of MS Paint, Journal of Visual Culture, Journal of Visual Culture, December 2014, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 275-297.
This article focuses on the history, formal properties, and cultural role played by MS Paint, a widely available graphics program that has been used to make countless internet memes. The author examines the technical limitations of the program, and the visible consequences produced by a mouse-driven bitmap-based graphics program. He uses MS Paint as a context to discuss two new pieces of graphics software – Fresh Paint and Rage Maker – each of which embody radically different orientations to the concept of remediation. These three approaches to understanding MS Paint help us to reconsider the culturally suppressed media that have nonetheless had significant effects on the visual culture of the contemporary participatory internet.
Toutes les séances auront lieu à l’Université Paris 8 en salle A329, bâtiment A, 3ème étage
Introduction – Alexandra Saemmer et Sophie Jehel (18 mars, 14-17 h)
Lecture critique des interfaces – Nicole Pignier et Nolwenn Trehondart (25 mars, 13 h 30-16 h 30)
Déconstruction du mythe des digital natives – Anne Cordier et Divina Frau-Meigs (1er avril, 9-12 h)
Quelle maîtrise de l’identité numérique ? – Louise Merzeau et Sébastien Appiotti (8 avril, 9-12 h)
Art numérique, émancipation et créativité – Emmanuel Guez, Arthur Lefevre, Laurence Corroy (15 avril, 9-12 h)
Décoder les algorithmes – Dominique Cardon et Natalia Calderon (6 mai, 9-12 h)