— IEEE History Center (@IEEEhistory) September 7, 2016
Présentées par Julien Goetz.
60/70’s : l’écho psychédélique du bout des tuyaux
70/80’s : cowboys nomades, astragale et feux de camps électriques
Les années 1990 : Un Web et des bulles
Les années 2000 : sous les pop-up, l’indépendance
Un Internet à la dérive. Des internets en résistance
Wanadoo (1er janvier 2000)
Dans la seconde partie des années 1990 émergent plusieurs enquêtes sur les usages.
Par exemple :
Boullier, Dominique et Charlier, Catherine. A chacun son Internet. Enquête sur des usages ordinaires . In: Réseaux, volume 15, n°86, 1997. Modèles et acteurs de la production audiovisuelle. pp. 159-181. DOI : 10.3406/reso.1997.3118
Pouts-Lajus, Serge et Tiévant, Sophie. Observation des usages d’Internet dans différents lieux d’accès public. Bulletin des bibliothèques de France (BBF), n° 5, 1999, p. 30-34. Disponible sur le Web : <http://bbf.enssib.fr/consulter/bbf-1999-05-0030-004>. ISSN 1292-8399.
AoIR routinely hosts several preconference workshops before the main conference. Attendees must register to attend a preconference; the price of the preconference is included as part of the main conference. All workshops will be held on October 5th.
Parmi elle celle organisée par Camille Paloque-Bergès (HT2S Cnam, membre de Web90 ) et Kevin Driscoll (University of Virginia):
404 History Not Found: Challenges in Internet History and Memory Studies
How did the Internet become relevant in today’s culture and politics? How were its codes and rules—whether technical, social or cultural—constructed, challenged, and normalized? How did net culture become a mass phenomenon of global importance? To understand why and how the “Internet rules” today, it is essential that we look back at the internet’s past. In this pre-conference, we will discuss the specific theoretical and methodological challenges that arise in the study of the internet through time and memory, for purposes of both historiography (what net histories and how?) and epistemology (net histories as an object of media research). Attendees will be invited to participate in three hands-on, interactive sessions organized around issues, sources and methods fundamental to researching net diachronicity.
Net history survives in unexpected places, unfolding through time and space, collapsing in on the present. The artifacts that surface may be incomplete or inscrutable absent their original contexts, requiring us to borrow creatively from other fields and develop new historical methods (Ankerson, 2011; Brügger & Finnemann, 2012; Paloque-Berges, 2016). From formal archives and oral histories to lingering web sites, software, and hardware artifacts, the material evidence of the past suggests a diversity of social, temporal, and technical regimes. Indeed, recent scholarship on early networks reveals a greater range of experiences, technologies, norms and motivations than is found in best-known histories of the internet (Brammer, 2015; Brunton, 2013; Driscoll, 2014; Hargadon, 2011; Mailland, 2015; Paloque-Berges, 2011; Rankin 2014, 2015; Russell, 2014; Russell & Schafer, 2014; Schafer & Thierry, 2012; Schulte, 2013; Streeter, 2011). In their wake, we question how to make sense of conflicts and contradictions while respecting the subjective lived experiences of individual participants. What is our responsibility to find and document hidden histories, obscure sources, and less visible networks? How will a richer understanding of the internet’s past change how we engage with its present and imagine its future?
This pre-conference will include three workshop sessions organized around core research challenges in net history: (1) epistemology, (2) sources and methodology, and (3) mediation and transmission. Selected participants, rather than present whole case studies, will intervene on specific challenges—for instance: theoretical paradoxes or deadlocks, methodological problem-solving, and demonstrations of born-digital artifacts. The audience will be involved by taking positions, suggesting ad-hoc solutions, and identifying common themes.
(…) This pre-conference will be a full-day workshop facilitated by Kevin Driscoll and Camille Paloque-Berges with support from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche project Web90. The discussions and hands-on activities will be accessible to all AOIR attendees but will be especially engaging for researchers encountering issues of temporality, memory, nostalgia, or a need to “go back in time” in their own work.
A team of computer science students succeeded in accessing the digitale archives of DDS (De Digitale Stad, The Digital City) from its first years of existence 1994-1996, and getting the software operational. The results of this spectacular project will be presented in the Amsterdam Museum.
Découvrir ce projet supervisé par Gerard Alberts (UvA, NL)
Five years ago Tuesday, two lawyers posted an advertisement to Internet newsgroups. The notorious « Green Card Spam » marked the beginning of a flood of spam that has since made Usenet a very different place. Antispam activist Ray Everett-Church looks back.
Lire la suite de l’article de R. Everett-Church dans Wired (13 avril 1999)
La soirée-débat organisée par la revue RESET (Recherches en Sciences Sociales sur Internet) pose la question des changements et des continuités qui accompagnent les usages d’Internet. Elle prend la forme d’une table-ronde à laquelle participent Antonio Casilli, Cécile Méadel et Dominique Pasquier, tou.te.s spécialistes des pratiques numériques et associé.e.s à la revue de différentes manières. À l’image de celle-ci, la soirée propose de revisiter les objets fondamentaux (classe, famille, travail, sociabilité…) des sciences sociales à l’heure des pratiques numériques. Quels sont les domaines où Internet a sensiblement changé les pratiques sociales ? Quels sont ceux où le réseau reproduit plus qu’il ne modifie les manières de faire ?
Le débat – entre les participants et avec le public – sera aussi l’occasion de revenir sur les différences de classe et de genre dans les pratiques numériques et sur les inégalités qui se logent dans les usages d’Internet.
How the Internet Became Commercial:
Innovation, Privatization, and the Birth of a New Network
Princeton University Press, 2015.
In less than a decade, the Internet went from being a series of loosely connected networks used by universities and the military to the powerful commercial engine it is today. This book describes how many of the key innovations that made this possible came from entrepreneurs and iconoclasts who were outside the mainstream—and how the commercialization of the Internet was by no means a foregone conclusion at its outset.
Shane Greenstein traces the evolution of the Internet from government ownership to privatization to the commercial Internet we know today. This is a story of innovation from the edges. Greenstein shows how mainstream service providers that had traditionally been leaders in the old-market economy became threatened by innovations from industry outsiders who saw economic opportunities where others didn’t—and how these mainstream firms had no choice but to innovate themselves. New models were tried: some succeeded, some failed. Commercial markets turned innovations into valuable products and services as the Internet evolved in those markets. New business processes had to be created from scratch as a network originally intended for research and military defense had to deal with network interconnectivity, the needs of commercial users, and a host of challenges with implementing innovative new services.
How the Internet Became Commercial demonstrates how, without any central authority, a unique and vibrant interplay between government and private industry transformed the Internet.
Shane Greenstein is the MBA Class of 1957 Professor of Business Administration and cochair of the Digital Initiative at Harvard Business School, and codirector of the program on the economics of digitization at the National Bureau of Economic Research. His books include Diamonds Are Forever, Computers Are Not and Standards and Public Policy.
— Mitch Fraas (@MitchFraas) March 15, 2016
— Mar Hicks (@histoftech) March 15, 2016
Voir notamment le témoignage de Jake Feinler – recueilli par Marc Weber (p. 52), qui oeuvra au SRI avec Engelbart au développement d’Arpanet et d’Internet (notamment du Whois).
Sur Jake Feinler voir également
ELIZABETH JOCELYN FEINLER: An Interview Conducted by Janet Abbate for the IEEE History Center, 8 July 2002. Interview # 597 for the IEEE History Center, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
In this interview, Feinler describes her work with FORTRAN, her initial interest in Chemistry, and her work at SRI. At SRI, she was involved in several projects including developing an Resource Handbook. She describes in great detail her time and her involvement in these projects at SRI and the transition of the Internet from military use to commercial use. She highlights the ongoing learning process involved in working with computers and programming. Feinler also described her time at NASA at the Ames Research Center after leaving her long career at SRI.
Nous signalons également le billet sur le blog du national Air and Space Museum dédié à Margaret Hamilton.