Introduction au parcours guidé BnF : Le Web des années 1990

© Archives de l'internet - Bibliothèque nationale de France© BnF

L’équipe Web90 est heureuse de vous annoncer la réalisation d’un parcours guidé dans le Web des années 1990 en collaboration avec la BnF. Au fil de 11 thèmes et de la sélection d’une centaine d’archives du Web, remontez le temps et découvrez la variété, la richesse mais aussi les tâtonnements de la Toile du passé.

Designing Publics

9780262035163Contemporary computing technologies have thoroughly embedded themselves in every aspect of modern life—conducting commerce, maintaining and extending our networks of friends, and mobilizing political movements all occur through a growing collection of devices and services designed to keep and hold our attention. Yet what happens when our attention needs to be more local, collective, and focused on our immediate communities? Perhaps more important, how can we imagine and create new technologies with local communities? In Designing Publics, Christopher Le Dantec explores these questions by designing technologies with the urban homeless. Drawing on a case study of the design of a computational infrastructure in a shelter for homeless women and their children, Le Dantec theorizes an alternate vision of design in community contexts.

Focusing on collective action through design, Le Dantec investigates the way design can draw people together on social issues and create and sustain a public. By “designing publics” he refers both to the way publics arise out of design intervention and to the generative action publics take—how they “do design” as they mobilize and act in the world. This double lens offers a new view of how design and a diverse set of design practices circulate in sites of collective action rather than commercial production.

About the Author
Christopher A. Le Dantec is Assistant Professor of Digital Media in the School of Literature, Media, and Communication at Georgia Institute of Technology.

Parution en septembre 2016, MIT Press.

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Looking for GIF?

Internet Archive propose un nouveau service qui réjouira les amateurs de tigres bondissants et de dancing babies, et tous ceux pour qui le Web du passé ne se conçoit pas sans une étude de la culture visuelle qui l’accompagnait. Par une recherche par mots-clé s’ouvre la possibilité de retrouver des gifs, et de les recontextualiser en consultant l’archive qui les contenait.


Internet Archive

Internet Archive



GIF Collider 1.0 exhibit

capture-decran-2016-10-26-a-09-47-22Have you ever wondered what happened to all the GIF animations that sparkled in the dawn of the internet? According to artists Greg Niemeyer and Olya Dubatova, they have become part of the digital subconscious, and the Berkeley Art Museum & Pacific Film Archive (BAMPFA) is presenting what that subconscious might look like, in an exhibit called GIF Collider.

Niemeyer studied both the Internet Archive’s collections of GIF animations and the Prelinger Film Archives from the 1950’s. He noticed how the film archives, which include ads, educational films and propaganda, show a heavy gender and racial bias. In comparison, the GIF animations from forty years later reflect less gender and racial bias—but we can’t help but wonder with more historical distance, what kinds of bias will become apparent in the future?

For three days, from Wednesday, October 26 to Friday, October 28, from dawn to dusk, BAMPFA invites you to ponder these questions as thousands of GIF animations emerge and collide on the huge public outdoor screen in a ballet of memory and erasure. Call it an outstallation, and it’s free for those walking near the intersection of Addison Avenue and Oxford Avenue in Berkeley. The GIFS will be presented in several chapters, playing for 30 minutes of every hour.

Gif Collider 1.0A special showcase with music made for the GIF Collider by Paz Lenchantin (Pixies) and with live music performances by Trevor Bajus and Space Town is planned for Friday, Oct 28, from 6-8pm, weather permitting.

What:  GIF Collider 1.0
A showcase at the Berkeley Art Museum
When:  Wednesday, October 26 to Friday, October 28
Where:  Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive
2155 Center Street
Berkeley, CA 94704
This event is free and open to the public.

CFP : The Digital Public Sphere in Question: From Counter- to Crypto-Publics.

Fengersfors (Gothenburg area), Sweden, 3-5 mars 2017.

Democracy presupposes a public sphere where citizens can debate their differences and reach mutually binding agreements. The emergence of the public sphere has often been linked to the surge of books and newspapers. Today, however, printed media is in crisis. The advertising revenues of publishing houses are siphoned off by Google and Facebook, while the habit of reading printed media is in steady decline. As a consequence, the journalistic profession is withering away too. It is much disputed whether this counts as a threat to free speech and public debate, or, on the contrary, is a promise to set them free. In different words, can digital media shoulder the same civic responsibilities as conventional media is said to have done in the past? Many are alarmed by a rise in uncivility in public debates, often linked to the anonymity of the computer screen. The graphic interface is said to invite trolling. A related concern is that the search engines are programmed to reinforce pre-existing search patterns. Algorithms create « filter bubbles » that undermine the possibility of developing an informed opinion. Others stress the upside. From the lukewarm promises about e-governance in the 1990s to the pie-in-the-sky visions of liquid democracy today, proposals are not lacking for how citizenship could be reinvigorated thanks to digital media. Other examples are of a more confrontational nature, such as the possibility of anonymous leaks and the surge of crypto-publics in the darknet. The ambiguity of the role of new media reflects a deeper ambiguity in the word ”people” itself. Since 1789, the p-word has interchangeably stood for, on the one hand, equality and democracy, and, on the other, for passion, violence and irrationality.

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Interopérabilité culturelle

vol34no1-small300Volume 34/1, 2016 de la revue Communication, coordonné par Laurence Favier, Widad Mustafa El Hadi et Dominique Vinck

 » (…) La notion d’interopérabilité culturelle attire l’attention sur l’imbrication des savoirs dans des contextes sociomatériels, notamment le média de langue et le bagage de références historiques et culturelles partagées au sein d’un collectif, savoirs dont une part majeure reste souvent tacite, ce qui va bien au-delà de ce qu’en définit la norme ISO (IEC TR 20007:2014) sur l’interopérabilité culturelle et linguistique portant sur la définition des symboles, des icônes, des caractères et des glyphes. Plus fondamentalement, l’interopérabilité culturelle renvoie aussi au fait que les autres couches d’interopérabilité, y compris le fait de distinguer des couches d’interopérabilité (Zacklad, 2012), charrient une vision des choses — notamment de l’organisation des connaissances (Hudon et El Hadi, 2010) — et des pratiques, un modèle en partie implicite qui ne constitue pas nécessairement une référence partagée. Ce fait conduit à déplacer parfois radicalement la problématique de l’interopérabilité. »

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voir notamment

Brigitte Juanals et Jean-Luc Minel, La construction d’un espace patrimonial partagé dans le Web de données ouvert [Texte intégral] 

The World Made Meme

Internet memes—digital snippets that can make a joke, make a point, or make a connection—are now a lingua franca of online life. They are collectively created, circulated, and transformed by countless users across vast networks. Most of us have seen the cat playing the piano, Kanye interrupting, Kanye interrupting the cat playing the piano. In The World Made Meme, Ryan Milner argues that memes, and the memetic process, are shaping public conversation. It’s hard to imagine a major pop cultural or political moment that doesn’t generate a constellation of memetic texts. Memetic media, Milner writes, offer participation by reappropriation, balancing the familiar and the foreign as new iterations intertwine with established ideas. New commentary is crafted by the mediated circulation and transformation of old ideas. Through memetic media, small strands weave together big conversations.

Milner considers the formal and social dimensions of memetic media, and outlines five basic logics that structure them: multimodality, reappropriation, resonance, collectivism, and spread. He examines how memetic media both empower and exclude during public conversations, exploring the potential for public voice despite everyday antagonisms. Milner argues that memetic media enable the participation of many voices even in the midst of persistent inequality. This new kind of participatory conversation, he contends, complicates the traditional culture industries. When age-old gatekeepers intertwine with new ways of sharing information, the relationship between collective participation and individual expression becomes ambivalent.

For better or worse—and Milner offers examples of both—memetic media have changed the nature of public conversations.

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An Archaeological Study of Web Tracking from 1996 to 2016

Adam Lerner, Anna Kornfeld Simpson, Tadayoshi Kohno, Franziska Roesner, (2016). « Internet Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Trackers: An Archaeological Study of Web Tracking from 1996 to 2016 », 25th USENIX Security Symposium, August 2016.


Though web tracking and its privacy implications have received much attention in recent years, that attention has come relatively recently in the history of the web and lacks full historical context. In this paper, we present longitudinal measurements of third-party web tracking behaviors from 1996 to present (2016). Our tool, TrackingExcavator, leverages a key insight: that the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine opens the pos- sibility for a retrospective analysis of tracking over time. We contribute an evaluation of the Wayback Machine’s view of past third-party requests, which we find is im- perfect — we evaluate its limitations and unearth lessons and strategies for overcoming them. Applying these strategies in our measurements, we discover (among other findings) that third-party tracking on the web has increased in prevalence and complexity since the first third-party tracker that we observe in 1996, and we see the spread of the most popular trackers to an increasing percentage of the most popular sites on the web. We ar- gue that an understanding of the ecosystem’s historical trends — which we provide for the first time at this scale in our work — is important to any technical and policy discussions surrounding tracking.

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