CFP : The Digital Public Sphere in Question: From Counter- to Crypto-Publics.

Fengersfors (Gothenburg area), Sweden, 3-5 mars 2017.

Democracy presupposes a public sphere where citizens can debate their differences and reach mutually binding agreements. The emergence of the public sphere has often been linked to the surge of books and newspapers. Today, however, printed media is in crisis. The advertising revenues of publishing houses are siphoned off by Google and Facebook, while the habit of reading printed media is in steady decline. As a consequence, the journalistic profession is withering away too. It is much disputed whether this counts as a threat to free speech and public debate, or, on the contrary, is a promise to set them free. In different words, can digital media shoulder the same civic responsibilities as conventional media is said to have done in the past? Many are alarmed by a rise in uncivility in public debates, often linked to the anonymity of the computer screen. The graphic interface is said to invite trolling. A related concern is that the search engines are programmed to reinforce pre-existing search patterns. Algorithms create « filter bubbles » that undermine the possibility of developing an informed opinion. Others stress the upside. From the lukewarm promises about e-governance in the 1990s to the pie-in-the-sky visions of liquid democracy today, proposals are not lacking for how citizenship could be reinvigorated thanks to digital media. Other examples are of a more confrontational nature, such as the possibility of anonymous leaks and the surge of crypto-publics in the darknet. The ambiguity of the role of new media reflects a deeper ambiguity in the word ”people” itself. Since 1789, the p-word has interchangeably stood for, on the one hand, equality and democracy, and, on the other, for passion, violence and irrationality.

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Interopérabilité culturelle

vol34no1-small300Volume 34/1, 2016 de la revue Communication, coordonné par Laurence Favier, Widad Mustafa El Hadi et Dominique Vinck

 » (…) La notion d’interopérabilité culturelle attire l’attention sur l’imbrication des savoirs dans des contextes sociomatériels, notamment le média de langue et le bagage de références historiques et culturelles partagées au sein d’un collectif, savoirs dont une part majeure reste souvent tacite, ce qui va bien au-delà de ce qu’en définit la norme ISO (IEC TR 20007:2014) sur l’interopérabilité culturelle et linguistique portant sur la définition des symboles, des icônes, des caractères et des glyphes. Plus fondamentalement, l’interopérabilité culturelle renvoie aussi au fait que les autres couches d’interopérabilité, y compris le fait de distinguer des couches d’interopérabilité (Zacklad, 2012), charrient une vision des choses — notamment de l’organisation des connaissances (Hudon et El Hadi, 2010) — et des pratiques, un modèle en partie implicite qui ne constitue pas nécessairement une référence partagée. Ce fait conduit à déplacer parfois radicalement la problématique de l’interopérabilité. »

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voir notamment

Brigitte Juanals et Jean-Luc Minel, La construction d’un espace patrimonial partagé dans le Web de données ouvert [Texte intégral] 

The World Made Meme

Internet memes—digital snippets that can make a joke, make a point, or make a connection—are now a lingua franca of online life. They are collectively created, circulated, and transformed by countless users across vast networks. Most of us have seen the cat playing the piano, Kanye interrupting, Kanye interrupting the cat playing the piano. In The World Made Meme, Ryan Milner argues that memes, and the memetic process, are shaping public conversation. It’s hard to imagine a major pop cultural or political moment that doesn’t generate a constellation of memetic texts. Memetic media, Milner writes, offer participation by reappropriation, balancing the familiar and the foreign as new iterations intertwine with established ideas. New commentary is crafted by the mediated circulation and transformation of old ideas. Through memetic media, small strands weave together big conversations.

Milner considers the formal and social dimensions of memetic media, and outlines five basic logics that structure them: multimodality, reappropriation, resonance, collectivism, and spread. He examines how memetic media both empower and exclude during public conversations, exploring the potential for public voice despite everyday antagonisms. Milner argues that memetic media enable the participation of many voices even in the midst of persistent inequality. This new kind of participatory conversation, he contends, complicates the traditional culture industries. When age-old gatekeepers intertwine with new ways of sharing information, the relationship between collective participation and individual expression becomes ambivalent.

For better or worse—and Milner offers examples of both—memetic media have changed the nature of public conversations.

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An Archaeological Study of Web Tracking from 1996 to 2016

Adam Lerner, Anna Kornfeld Simpson, Tadayoshi Kohno, Franziska Roesner, (2016). « Internet Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Trackers: An Archaeological Study of Web Tracking from 1996 to 2016 », 25th USENIX Security Symposium, August 2016.

Résumé

Though web tracking and its privacy implications have received much attention in recent years, that attention has come relatively recently in the history of the web and lacks full historical context. In this paper, we present longitudinal measurements of third-party web tracking behaviors from 1996 to present (2016). Our tool, TrackingExcavator, leverages a key insight: that the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine opens the pos- sibility for a retrospective analysis of tracking over time. We contribute an evaluation of the Wayback Machine’s view of past third-party requests, which we find is im- perfect — we evaluate its limitations and unearth lessons and strategies for overcoming them. Applying these strategies in our measurements, we discover (among other findings) that third-party tracking on the web has increased in prevalence and complexity since the first third-party tracker that we observe in 1996, and we see the spread of the most popular trackers to an increasing percentage of the most popular sites on the web. We ar- gue that an understanding of the ecosystem’s historical trends — which we provide for the first time at this scale in our work — is important to any technical and policy discussions surrounding tracking.

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Les interfaces numériques

CC 3.0 Travail personnel Almonroth

CC 3.0
Travail personnel
Almonroth

Le séminaire « cultures numériques » du 18 juin 2016 14.00-16.00 aura pour thème :

LES INTERFACES NUMERIQUES

Sonia Bressler – Peut-on encore penser sans Google ?

Marie de Quatrebarbes – L’ergonomie des interfaces pour appréhender le numérique.

Le séminaire est ouvert à tous (sur inscription en raison des consignes de sécurité) et s’adresse à tous les acteurs du monde numérique : chercheurs, étudiants, responsable de fabrication, éditeurs…

Inscription et renseignement : implications.philosophiques@gmail.com

Of Remixology

9780262033930David J. GunkelOf Remixology. Ethics and Aesthetics after Remix, The MIT Press, 2015.

Remix—or the practice of recombining preexisting content—has proliferated across media both digital and analog. Fans celebrate it as a revolutionary new creative practice; critics characterize it as a lazy and cheap (and often illegal) recycling of other people’s work. In Of Remixology, David Gunkel argues that to understand remix, we need to change the terms of the debate. The two sides of the remix controversy, Gunkel contends, share certain underlying values—originality, innovation, artistic integrity. And each side seeks to protect these values from the threat that is represented by the other. In reevaluating these shared philosophical assumptions, Gunkel not only provides a new way to understand remix, he also offers an innovative theory of moral and aesthetic value for the twenty-first century.

In a section called “Premix,” Gunkel examines the terminology of remix (including “collage,” “sample,” “bootleg,” and “mashup”) and its material preconditions, the technology of recording. In “Remix,” he takes on the distinction between original and copy; makes a case for repetition; and considers the question of authorship in a world of seemingly endless recompiled and repurposed content. Finally, in “Postmix,” Gunkel outlines a new theory of moral and aesthetic value that can accommodate remix and its cultural significance, remixing—or reconfiguring and recombining—traditional philosophical approaches in the process.