AAC XXè Congrès de la SFSIC : Temps, temporalités et information-communication

sfsic

Le délai de dépôt des propositions sur la plateforme est repoussé au 12 janvier minuit. Invité d’honneur:  Hartmut Rosa.

voir l’AAC du Congrès de la SFSIC qui se tiendra à Metz, les 8, 9 & 10 juin 2016.

Forum des archivistes 2016 : les archives, bouillon de culture numérique

forum-archivistes

L’Association des archivistes français (AAF) organise, au printemps 2016 (30, 31 mars et 1er avril), à Troyes, la deuxième édition de son Forum. Comme nous partageons tous aujourd’hui le constat que le numérique a envahi toutes les facettes et fonctions des archives, cette deuxième édition du Forum de l’AAF se propose de questionner les métamorphoses des archives au contact du numérique, suivant une double approche, épistémologique et méthodologique.

Retrouvez l’argumentaire, ainsi que le programme et les informations pratiques.

 

Soutenance de thèse: Les usages sociopolitiques de l’actualité en ligne. S’informer, partager et commenter sur Facebook

La soutenance par Coralie Le Caroff de sa thèse de doctorat en sciences de l’information et de la communication aura lieu le vendredi 11 décembre 2015 à 14 h30, à l’Université Panthéon-Assas, Salle des Actes, 12, place du Panthéon 75005 Paris.

Le jury sera composé de :

Madame Valérie BEAUDOUIN, Directrice d’études Telecom ParisTech
Madame Isabelle GARCIN-MARROU, Professeure à Sciences-Po Lyon, Rapporteure
Madame Josiane JOUËT, Professeure à l’Université Panthéon-Assas, Directrice de thèse
Monsieur Arnaud MERCIER, Professeur à L’Université Panthéon-Assas
Monsieur Serge PROULX, Professeur émérite à l’Université du Québec à Montréal, Rapporteur

Résumé

La thèse porte sur les usages sociopolitiques de l’actualité en ligne par les profanes sur Facebook. Initialement conçu pour l’échange privé, ce réseau social est également devenu un espace pour s’informer, partager et commenter les nouvelles. Ces pratiques sont analysées à partir de trois entrées : les spécificités du dispositif technique, le rapport au politique des participants et, enfin, le rôle du genre dans les prises de parole sur Facebook.

Ce travail se fonde sur l’analyse comparée de la participation sur une sélection de pages Facebook de médias et de profils personnels sur ce réseau. La méthodologie repose sur une observation ethnographique en ligne et sur une enquête qualitative par entretiens.

Les principaux résultats démontrent que les actualités politiques débouchent sur des réactions davantage fondées sur l’émotion que sur la rationalité et sur des affrontements de camps d’opinion. Ces débats se déroulent essentiellement sur les pages publiques des médias alors que les Timelines sont plutôt des espaces de diffusion et de partage d’actualités. Les femmes manifestent autant que les hommes un intérêt pour les questions publiques et Facebook est un espace commun d’indignation. En dépit d’opinions affirmées, les modes d’interaction des participantes sont plutôt modérés à l’inverse de ceux des hommes, plus investis dans des confrontations. Si Facebook contribue, en un sens, à un élargissement de l’espace public, la participation étudiée demeure limitée et ne s’apparente pas à des débats susceptibles de revivifier la démocratie.

Soutenance HDR de Valérie Schafer : Une histoire de convergence

Mercredi 25 novembre aura lieu la soutenance du dossier d’Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches de Valérie Schafer (ISCC – CNRS/Paris-Sorbonne/UPMC)
 
 Une histoire de convergence 
Les technologies de l’information et de la communication depuis les années 1950
 
Le manuscrit original est intitulé « En construction. Une histoire française du Web des années 1990″
construction_022

Time(s) and materiality of the Internet discussed at IR16 Phoenix / Part 1

aoir-ir16I am attending the sixteenth conference of the Association for Internet Researchers (IR16) In Phoenix, Arizona. My primary objective here is to co-chair and present in a panel which seeks to build bridges between science and technology studies (STS) approaches and Internet governance research; however, I have been delighted to attend at least two panels whose topics closely intertwine with the goals of the Web90 project: “timing” and “material”.

In the first panel, Timing, which took place on Wednesday 22 October, contributors explored how time – its unfolding, “instantness”, subjective understandings – affect our perceptions of digital tools and their objectives. Sarah Munoz-Bates, from Arizona State University, in “Instant Results with Lingering Effects”, examined the ways in which Google can bias searchers into privileging one set of terms over the other when looking for information on undocumented immigration in the United States. Her study showed how Google often directs users toward the word “illegal” over the word “undocumented” and how this biasing can have negative repercussions in immigration discussions; she argued that the simple act of instantaneously and repeatedly displaying specific words or phrases holds the potential to influence long-term how people research, learn, and discuss a specific topic. In a statistics-based paper, “‘iTime’ as a Blessing or a Curse: Imaginaries of Smartphone Use and Personal and Social Time Among Generational Groups in Estonia”, Veronika Kalmus (University of Tartu, Estonia) focused on people’s imaginaries of smartphones, and the relationships between those imaginaries and personal perception and use of time, testing empirically Ben Agger’s thesis that social imaginaries of the normal social life in a smartphone era vary generationally. Taking as a starting point the Internet jargon term ‘TL;DR’, which stands for ‘too long didn’t read.’ — a dismissive response to a text that was too long or not interesting enough to read within the Internet’s ‘quick pace’ – Stacey Koosel (Estonian Academy of Arts) addressed the many levels of temporality factors in digital culture, arguing notably that online time can be more easily manipulated, artificially constructed and fragmented than offline time, and that temporal awareness online is often a by-product of design, by software guiding temporal and spatial constructs that help create meaning. And finally, Alex Leavitt and colleagues, in “Beyond Big Bird”, addressed the question of how emergent discourses impact the interpretation of large social media events, through an analysis of the use of humor (or lack thereof) in tweets posted during each of the three 2012 presidential debates. Their findings invite to consider humor and other contextual aspects of communication in studies of participatory politics on social media, while emphasizing the “live” and real-time aspect of the impact of tweeting activities.

Francesca Musiani (ISCC)

Time(s) and materiality of the Internet discussed at IR16 Phoenix / Part 2

Old Thinkpad with 3Com Ethernet / modem PCMCIA card sticking out Jim Henderson, travail personnel. CC0

Old Thinkpad with 3Com Ethernet / modem PCMCIA card sticking out
Jim Henderson, travail personnel, CC0

The second panel, “Material”, held on Thursday 23 October, provided some very interesting perspectives on the ‘mundane’ devices that are such an integral part of how we interact with, and indeed, define, our relation to the digital. James Allen-Robertson (University of Essex, UK) focused on the Hard Disk drive as a material foundation for contemporary digital media, providing a historical perspective drawing elements from the development of the Gramophone and Phonograph, Magnetic Tape and Optical Media – a perspective that leveraged Foucault’s concept of ‘descent’ to provide a historical perspective on the way in which fundamental material factors constrain, influence and encourage particular uses of digital media. In the case of the Hard Disk, according to Allen-Robertson, the descent demonstrates how this device’s operation plays a role in the affordances of digital media and how these affordances are prefigured in older media technologies. In his piece “Singing Data Over the Phone”, Kevin Driscoll (Microsoft Research) focused on the modem instead, as a “singularly powerful symbol of late-20th century personal computer networking”. Operating at the junction of computing and communication, he argued, the modem was a device that both defined and defied boundaries during the early history of the net. First, during the period of rapid deregulation of U.S. telecommunications during the 1970s, when modems enabled thousands of microcomputer enthusiasts to exchange data and ideas over standard telephone wires. Second, as PC ownership grew more commonplace during the 1980s, when the modem became a mark of distinction, differentiating the everyday home computer owner from the small but growing telecomputing vanguard. As “a meeting point between the novel and legacy systems of personal computing and telephony”, at the intersection of “virtual and translocal imaginaires”, the modem, Driscoll argued, is deserving of a “social history” of its own. Lindsay Ems, from Butler University, presented an ethnography-based analysis of the socio-technical innovations, including professional artifacts and arrangements, which reflect and protect Amish religious and cultural values in our increasingly digital economy. Wireless ad-hoc arrangements, double screens, were presented as mundane and everyday devices and professional practices that have profound political implications for the empowerment of Amish communities to resist the assimilation of their culture in mainstream society in an increasingly globally networked world. In her award-winning paper “The Digital Not-so-imaginary Behind Genderless Online Discourse”, Jenny Korn adopted a perspective grounded in muted group theory and analytical feminism to examine online discourse within users of the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system in the United States, PLATO. She explored how gender manifested within computer-mediated communication in PLATO as an early originator of online social computing. She exposed gendered muting processes that have persisted from that time, and showed that to attain voice, women have had to present themselves in stereotypical ways that are aligned with men’s discourse.

Francesca Musiani (ISCC)

Séminaire Codes Sources

Html-source-code3

À chaque séance du séminaire Codes sources, depuis janvier 2015, un intervenant vient présenter, en moins d’une heure, un code source de son choix : un fragment de système d’exploitation, de pilote, de compilateur, de bibliothèque…

 

 

Le code peut avoir été écrit par l’orateur ou par quelqu’un d’autre, dans quelque langage que ce soit. Le commentaire peut être algorithmique, stylistique, historique ou philosophique, et porter sur tous les aspects du code, commentaires compris. Le code est discuté avec l’auditoire.

Organisateurs

Raphaël Fournier (CNAM)
Baptiste Mélès (CNRS, Archives Henri-Poincaré)
Lionel Tabourier (LIP6).

Découvrir le carnet de recherche
Programme 2015/2016

1ère séance
Mercredi 14 octobre 2015
Georges Gonthier (Microsoft Research/INRIA), « Le génie logiciel des mathématiques formelles »

AAC Penser l’histoire des médias. Congrès de la Société pour l’histoire des médias

Kromarograph_Scientific_American_1.09.1906_S._15926-27 mai 2016, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines

Ce premier Congrès de la Société pour l’histoire des médias (SPHM) se donne pour objectif de réunir des chercheuses et chercheurs français et étrangers, juniors ou confirmés, historiens ou spécialistes d’autres disciplines, autour d’un champ d’études commun : l’histoire des médias.

Opening the Black Box of Web Archiving: STS Approaches and the Governance of Born-Digital Heritage

Illustration à partir de Nils Jepsen - Aarhus Universitet  CC BY 2.5

Illustration à partir de Nils Jepsen – Aarhus Universitet
CC BY 2.5

Résumé de l’intervention de Francesca Musiani et Valérie Schafer au colloque Web Archives as scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives, international conference, Aarhus (DK), 8-10 Juin 2015

At the crossroads of two topics of the conference, “Approaches to web archiving” and “Research methods for studying the archived web”, our starting point is that the material, practical, theoretical elements of Web archiving as an ensemble of practices and a terrain of inquiry are inextricably entwined. Several examples illustrate this, from the archiving practices of Internet Archive to those of national preservation institutions: they reveal different modalities of accessibility to archives, consultation interfaces, constitution of corpuses – that, in turn, are not without methodological consequences for researchers. Thus, the exploration of Web archiving processes and infrastructures – often discreet, invisible, ‘black-boxed’ (Latour, 1987) appears increasingly relevant.

Approaches inspired by Science and Technology Studies (STS) can contribute to shed light on the shaping of Web archives; and, in return, some of its notions – e.g. technical democracy, co-production, boundary object (Callon et al., 2001; Star & Griesemer, 1989) – may be approached in novel ways building upon Web archives as a research terrain. In particular, STS approaches are interesting in order to explore the notion of governance as it relates to born-digital heritage.

In 2005, the Working Group on Internet Governance defined Internet governance as “the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet”, adding that “it also includes other significant public policy issues, such as critical Internet resources, the security and safety of the Internet, and developmental aspects and issues pertaining to the use of the Internet”. A definition that fits Web archives very well, if they replace systematically the word “Internet”: indeed, Web archiving practices involve a variety of actors, moved by different motivations; they encompass different and evolving definitions, values, imaginaries of the very notion of Web archiving (e.g. Kaehle, 2014 on the “participatory turn” in archiving the Internet); they suggest different ways in which control and responsibility can be exerted, be it social norms, technical standards or policies.

As such, our contribution aims to show that Web archives and archiving, understood as a socio-technical system, display a number of features and raise questions that are of interest for Internet governance scholars: multi-stakeholderism, the dialectic between national, international, transnational governance(s), and the juxtaposition of market, technology and norms as instruments of power. Web archiving: a microcosm of Internet governance?

References

Callon, M., Lascoumes, P. & Barthe, Y. (2001). Agir dans un monde incertain. Essai sur la démocratie technique, Paris: Seuil.

Kaehle, B. (2014, October 28). “Building Libraries Together

Latour, B. (1987). Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Star, S. L. & Griesemer, J. (1989). Institutional Ecology, ‘Translations’ and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907-39. Social Studies of Science, 19 (3) : 387- 420.